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INTRODUCTORY   ESSAY.                               143
the Ghats, has been investigated by Roxburgh, who, during
the earlier part of his Indian career, resided a.t Samalcotah in
the northern Circars, by which name thjme triet is usually
referred to in the e Flora Indica' of that distinguished bo-
tanist. Dr. RusscPs collections were also chiefly from the
same district. The vegetation of the interior of the province
is quite unknown, except from a few notices in Major Kittoe's
journey to the Sambalpur valley,
10. BAHAR.
The boundaries of the ancient province of Bahar have no
doubt varied at different epochs, and in modern times tlic
name is understood in a great variety of senses, being restricted
at one time to a small judicial district, and at other times ex-
tended so as to include the whole of the western part of the
lower provinces of the Bengal Presidency. Its employment in
an arbitrary manner can therefore be productive of. no incon-
venience, so long as it is accurately defined. We shall there-
fore, in our present work, understand under the name -of
Bahar the whole of the northern slope of the eastern portion
of the Vindhia mountains, from the borders of Bandelkhand
(or rather Rewah) and Malwah to the Gangetic plain. In
this way it is separated from Orissa by the watershed of the
chain, and includes the districts of Palamow and Bamgarh, as
well as the lower half of the valley of the Son.
The eastern portion of the Vindhia chain, as we have seen,
is a spreading table-land, and the spurs which it sends down
to the northward arc similar in nature to those which run
south, and separate the different valleys of Orissa. There is
a great want of authentic information regarding the elevation
and even, the physical features of these wild and little-known
countries. The elevated table-land of Chota Nagpur is said to
have an average height of 3000 feet; and further west, towards
the borders of Sirgujah, the surface is perhaps a'little higher*
The plain of Hazaribagh has a mean height of about 1800
feet; and twenty or thirty miles further east, that out of